Roscosmos is a state corporation of the Russian Federation responsible for space flights, cosmonautics programs, and aerospace research. 

Originating from the Soviet space program, Roscosmos used to be known as the Russian Federal Space Agency, which was established in 1992. The space program had significant achievements in the early Space Race in the 50s and up to the 70s, thanks to the joint efforts of the best engineers from all over the Soviet Union.

In 2015, the agency and United Rocket and Space Corporation merged and formed Roscosmos as we know it today. 

The Russian Space Agency was a member of the ISS project from the beginning. From the end of the American space shuttle program in 2010 to the beginning of spaceflights of the SpaceX Dragon capsule in 2020, the Russian Soyuz spacecraft was the only means for astronauts to get to the ISS. That’s why numerous Russian cosmonauts have been into space. Recently, Roskosmos announced that it will leave the ISS project at the end of 2024 and begin work on its own orbital space station in 2025.

Roscosmos is a major provider of launch services to other countries. It uses the Baikonur Cosmodrome, a spaceport in Kazakhstan, leased by Russia. In 2011, Russia began the construction of its own launch site — Vostochny — to launch rockets from Russian soil.

Roscosmos also aims to construct a lunar base called the International Lunar Research Station with the China National Space Administration.